Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Review of Physical Properties

Malhotra, Neeraj and Agarwal, Antara and *, Kundabala M (2013) Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Review of Physical Properties. Compendium, 34 (2). pp. 2-15.

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The purpose of this two-part series is to review the composition, properties, products, and clinical aspects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials. Electronic search of scientific papers from January 1991 to May 2010 was accomplished using PubMed and MedLine search engines to include relevant scientific citations from the peer-reviewed journals published in English. MTA is a refined form of the parent compound, Portland cement (PC). It demonstrates a strong biocompatible nature owing to the high pH and its ability to form hydroxyapatite. MTA materials provide a better seal than traditional endodontic materials as observed in dye leakage, fluid filtration, protein leakage, and bacterial penetration leakage studies, and it has been recognized as a bioactive material. Currently a variety of MTA commercial products are available, including Proroot® Gray MTA and White MTA both from DENTSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialties (www.DENTSPLY.com), and MTA Angelus (Angelus, www.angelus.ind.br). Although these materials are indicated for various dental uses/applications, long-term in-vivo clinical studies are still needed to claim the same. This first of this series highlights and discusses the composition, physical, and/or chemical properties of MTA. A subsequent article will offer an overview of the material aspect (commercial products) and clinical considerations for MTA materials. Endodontic failures may occur as a result of leakage of irritants into the periapical tissues.1 Therefore, an ideal orthograde and/or retrograde filling material should seal the pathways of communication between the root canal system and its surrounding tissues; thus, this material should be biocompatible and dimensionally stable.2,3 This led to the development of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) materials possessing these ideal characteristics. The initial literature regarding the material was published in 1993 by Lee et al.4 Following this, the material received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1998.5,6 Initially recommended as a root-end filling material, it is currently being used for pulp capping, pulpotomy, apexogenesis and apexification, apical barrier formation, repair of root perforations and resorptive defects, and as a root canal and root-end filling material.6,7 It is mainly composed of tricalcic silicate, tricalcic aluminate, and bismuth oxide, and consists of fine hydrophilic particles that harden in the presence of dampness or blood.5,6,8 It has a better sealing capacity and biocompatibility compared to other classic materials such as amalgam, cements, super ethoxy benzoic acid (EBA), and interim restorative material (IRM). This review highlights the compositional characteristics and featured properties of MTA materials.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Dentistry > MCODS Mangalore > Conservative Dentistry
Depositing User: KMCMLR User
Date Deposited: 30 Dec 2013 07:16
Last Modified: 30 Dec 2013 07:16
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/138131

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