Antimicrobial Effect of Anacardium Occidentale Leaf Extract Against Pathogens Causing Periodontal Disease

Varghese, Jothi and Tumkur, Vijay Kumar and Ballal, Vasudev (2013) Antimicrobial Effect of Anacardium Occidentale Leaf Extract Against Pathogens Causing Periodontal Disease. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4. pp. 15-18.

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Abstract

The oral cavity is perpetually colonized by different species of microorganisms and at times it is difficult to characterize the periodontal pathogen causing breakdown of tissue and bone. But over the years, ba- sed on scientific knowledge, it has been observed that various gram negative anaerobic bacteria have been involved with the initiation of periodontal disease. Ba- sed on literature reviews, a study was undertaken to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) leaf extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. Methanol and aqueous extracts of cashew leaves were prepared. Its antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and P. in- termedia was tested using the agar diffusion method at various dilutions of 75 μ, 50 μl, 25 μl, 10 μl and 5 μl respectively. 0.2% Clorhexidine gluconate (CHX) was used as control. Cultures of P. gingivalis and P. in- termedia strains were maintained on Kanamycin blood agar. The agar plates were then incubated at 37°C for 72 hours after which the zone of inhibition was measured and the mean was recorded for each test solution. The results of this study demonstrated that, for both P. gingivalis and P. intermedia, the highest concentration (75 μl) of both the extracts showed maximum antimicrobial action. For P. gini- gvalis, the aqueous extract demonstrated significant inhibitory activity compared to the methanolic ex- tract (p = 0.005), which was comparable to that of CHX. For P. intermedia, similar results were obser- ved with aqueous extract being more effective com- pared to methanolic (p = 0.007), however, CHX was most effective compared to both the extracts (p = 0.007). This study revealed that Anacardium occiden- tale leaf extracts have efficient antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis & P. intermedia. Hence, this pre- liminary study suggests that the antimicrobial action of A. occidentale leaf could be utilized for the prepa- ration of chemical plaque control formulations.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Agar Dilution Method; A. Occidentale Leaf; P. gingivalis; P. intermedia; Antibacterial Activity
Subjects: Dentistry > MCODS Manipal > Conservative Dentistry and Endontics
Dentistry > MCODS Manipal > Periodontology
Pharmacy > MCOPS Manipal > Pharmacology
Depositing User: KMC Manipal
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2014 04:33
Last Modified: 15 Jul 2014 04:33
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/140121

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