Assessment of external root resorption-A radiographic study

Singla, Ritesh and Keluskar, KM and Singla, Nishu and keluskar, Vaishali (2014) Assessment of external root resorption-A radiographic study. e-Journal of Dentistry, 4 (1). pp. 545-556.

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Introduction:Contemporary orthodontics has attained a high degree of proficiency, undoubtedly due to the valuable technical refinements as well as innovations in the field of materials used in orthodontics. In spite of such advances taking place in all aspects of orthodontics, external apical root resorption (earr), particularly in the region of upper incisors, is an almost ubiquitous consequence of orthodontic treatment and has been concern of clinicians. Yet, notwithstanding our speciality’s heightened concern in the present era of medical litigiousness, the fundamental cause of treatment associated root resorption remains unknown, and the magnitude of resorption to be anticipated after specific clinical manoeuvres is almost entirely unpredictable. The ability to identify the small proportion of patients at risk of severe apical root resorption before or early in treatment may, therefore, be of clinical significance. Aims And Objectives: 1)To check for the incidence of external apical root resorption during active orthodontic treatment. 2) To quantify the amount of external apical root resorption in maxillary incisors during retraction phase of active orthodontic treatment using frictional and frictionless mechanics. 3) To evaluate the contribution of gender, duration of retraction and type of mechanics used for retraction to external apical root resorption. Methodology:A total of 50 subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with preadjusted edgewise appliance using either Roth or MBT prescription were included. The subjects were divided into 2 groups. 1) f group – patients treated with frictional mechanics for retraction (36 subjects: age between 13-27 years) 2) fl group- patients treated with frictionless mechanics for retraction (14 subjects: age between 14-23 years). Radiographs of the patients‘ maxillary permanent central and lateral incisors were taken at two stages: t1- at the start of the retraction and t2- at the end of the retraction with long cone paralleling technique. The crown and root length was measured in the pre retraction (t1) and post retraction (t2) radiographs using the rvg software (kodak dental imaging). Using a simple mathematical formula the amount of external apical root resorption was calculated. Statistical analysis was done using paired and unpaired t tests. Results: There was statistically significant difference in mean root resorption between the friction and frictionless groups in both central and lateral incisors. There was statistically significant difference in percentage root resorption between males and females in both f and fl groups (p<.05). The male patients in both the groups (f, fl) showed less amount of root resorption i.e. 0.74 ± 0.18 mm than females i.e. 0.89 ± 0.1 mm respectively. The average amount of root resorption at 4, 5 and 6 months of treatment duration was 0.92 ± 0.31, 0.96 ± 0.22, 1.30 ± 0.31 respectively, indicating an increase in root resorption with treatment duration. There was statistically significant difference between 4 and 6 months; between 5 and 6 months; but no statistically significant difference was seen between 4 and 5 months. Conclusions:There was a visible amount of root resorption during retraction phase of fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.The maximum resorption was seen in lateral incisors when compared to central incisors. The mean percentage resorption in lateral incisors was 6.66% in comparison to 4.03% in central incisors. The root resorption seen was more in teeth which were retracted using frictionless mechanics than the teeth in which friction mechanics was used with a statistically significant difference between them. There was a significant increase in root resorption with increase in the treatment duration.There was an increased amount of root resorption in females than in males.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: External apical root resorption; retraction; friction mechanics; frictionless mechanics; radiovisiographs.
Subjects: Dentistry > MCODS Manipal > Orthodontics
Depositing User: KMC Manipal
Date Deposited: 23 Jul 2014 09:49
Last Modified: 23 Jul 2014 09:49

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