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Ulcerative Colitis – A Review

*, Murlimanju BV (2014) Ulcerative Colitis – A Review. Golden Research Thoughts, International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 3 (12). pp. 1-13. ISSN 2231-5063

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Abstract

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that is characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation that originates in the rectum and involves the colon in a continuous, circumferential fashion. The clinical course of ulcerative colitis is marked by exacerbations and periods of remission. The exact etiology of ulcerative colitis is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an immune response in the gut in genetically predisposed individuals. Ulcerative colitis is found almost equally in men and women and tends to appear in young adults, although it can be diagnosed at any age. Ulcerative colitis occurs in families in approximately 2% to 5% of cases, which is a higher frequency than expected by chance, meaning that it sometimes has an inherited (genetic) pattern. The main symptom of the disease is bloody diarrhea with mucous, rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and cramping. Joint pains, mouth sores, skin rashes, and eye inflammation may accompany ulcerative colitis in some individuals. Complications include liver and kidney disease, peritonitis, toxic mega colon (inflammation of the intestinal wall), and colon cancer. Diagnosing ulcerative colitis is based upon a clinical suspicion supported by endoscopic, histologic, and radiographic findings. Ulcerative colitis is treated as an autoimmune disease. Treatment is with anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppression, and biological therapy targeting specific components of the immune response. Colectomy (partial or total removal of the large bowel through surgery) is occasionally necessary if the disease is severe, doesn't respond to treatment, or if significant complications develop. This review summarizes the aetiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical signs and symptoms, complications, diagnosis and recent advances in clinical management of ulcerative colitis.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: ulcerative colitis, bloody diarrhea, mucous, rectal bleeding, mesalamine.
Subjects: Medicine > KMC Mangalore > Anatomy
Depositing User: KMCMLR User
Date Deposited: 06 Aug 2014 08:02
Last Modified: 06 Aug 2014 08:02
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/140345

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