Photogrammetric analysis of eyebrow and upper eyelid dimensions in South Indians and Malaysian South Indians

Kumar, Vasanth and Kumar, Pramod and Bashour, Mounir (2013) Photogrammetric analysis of eyebrow and upper eyelid dimensions in South Indians and Malaysian South Indians. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 33 (7). pp. 975-982.

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Abstract

Background: The eyebrow and eyelid are important sexually dimorphic and ethnic features of the face. In cosmetic surgery, maintenance of these landmarks is important to obtaining satisfactory results. Objectives: The authors quantify the dimension and position of the eyebrow and eyelid in South Indians and Malaysian South Indians and assess whether significant differences exist between the sexes and ethnic groups. Methods: Evaluation of eyebrow and upper eyelid was performed on standardized photographs of 200 South Indian and 200 Malaysian South Indian subjects, aged 18 to 26 years. We measured eyebrow thickness, apex to lateral limbus distance, apex to lateral canthus distance, interbrow distance, medial end of the eyebrow to medial canthus, lateral end of the eyebrow to lateral canthus, eyebrow height, eyebrow apex inclination, and pretarsal skin height. The measured values were evaluated by an independent t test. We also assessed the prevalence of double lid crease and types of epicanthus and eyebrow apex positions. Results: A significant difference was found between women in the South Indian and Malaysian South Indian groups for eyebrow apex to lateral limbus distance, medial end to medial canthus, pretarsal skin height, eyebrow height, and eyebrow apex inclination. Male groups showed significant ethnic difference for eyebrow apex to lateral limbus distance. Sexual dimorphism was found for all measurement categories. A double crease fold appeared in 99% of the subjects. Only epicanthus tarsalis (95%) and epicanthus superciliaris (5%) appeared in the subjects. Four types of eyebrow apex position were found. Conclusions: Ethnic and sex differences exist for eyebrow and eyelid dimensions in the 2 groups we studied. Knowledge of these trends is significant during surgical planning to obtain ideal outcomes.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Sexual dimorphism; eyebrow; eyelid; anthropometry; facial attractiveness; oculoplastics.
Subjects: Medicine > MMMC Manipal > Anatomy
Depositing User: KMC Manipal
Date Deposited: 19 May 2015 10:13
Last Modified: 19 May 2015 10:13
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/142679

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