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Need for an Individualized and Aggressive Management of Multinodular Goiters of Endemic Zones by Specially Trained Surgeons: Experience in Western Nepal

Smiti, S (2006) Need for an Individualized and Aggressive Management of Multinodular Goiters of Endemic Zones by Specially Trained Surgeons: Experience in Western Nepal. World Journal of Surgery, 30. pp. 2101-2109.

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Abstract

Background: The goals of the present study were to explore the presentation of multinodular goiter (MNG) and solitary thyroid nodules (STN) in the sub-Himalayan belt, including the risk of malignancy,and to evaluate whether specialized surgeon training in endocrine surgery has an effect on reducing complications.Methods: This retrospective study (1998–2003) analyzed 624 patients with thyroid disorders seen in the thyroid clinic of a tertiary care hospital in western Nepal. The findings included 67.7% (n = 423:euthyroid, 297, toxic, 126) multinodular goiters (MNG) and 18.5% (n = 116) STN. Rest of patients of other thyroid disorders were excluded from the study. Ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were the available diagnostic adjuncts. To evaluate the role of surgeon training, outcomes were compared between patients cared for by surgeons specially trained in endocrine surgery and those who were not. Prognostic markers indicated aggressiveness of cancers. Results: Of the 539 MNG and STN patients in this series, 236 underwent operation. Of these, 25.7% (139/539) were toxic, and 11.31% had associated carcinoma. Aggressive cancers, like poorly differentiated (4.9%) and anaplastic types (18%), were more common than in series of patients from iodine-sufficient regions. Patients 40–55 years of age were more likely to have toxicity, and those > 60 years of age were more likely to have aggressive cancers. Postoperative complication rates were lower in the group treated by surgeons who had special training in endocrine surgery.Conclusions: There is a higher incidence of toxicity and malignancy in MNG in an endemic goiter zone. The limited diagnostic and therapeutic facilities in the region under study warrant a high degree of clinical suspicion and judgment, sound knowledge of thyroid physiology, thorough interpretation of hormone test results, and meticulous surgical techniques. The treatment must be individualized with consideration of humanitarian and socioeconomic factors, without compromising the quality of care and its long-term consequences. Aggressive management of malignancy and toxicity with total thyroidectomy is needed as primary therapy in many instances. However, subtotal excision is more useful in carefully selected cases with a small remnant. Specialized training in thyroid surgery appears to be valuable in reducing complications.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Medicine > KMC Manipal > Radiology
Depositing User: KMC Manipal
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2015 05:28
Last Modified: 29 Jul 2015 07:08
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/143627

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