Mass loading and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products including psychoactives, antihypertensives, and antibiotics in two sewage treatment plants in southern India

Subedi, Bikram and Balakrishna, Keshava and Joshua, DerrickIan and Kannan, Kurunthachalam (2016) Mass loading and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products including psychoactives, antihypertensives, and antibiotics in two sewage treatment plants in southern India. Chemosphere, 167. pp. 429-437. ISSN 0045-6535

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Abstract

Environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is barely studied in India despite being one of the largest global producers and consumers of pharmaceuticals. In this study, 29 pharmaceuticals and six metabolites were determined in sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Udupi (STPU: population served ~150,000) and Mangalore (STPM: population served ~450,000); the measured mean concentrations ranged from 12 to 61,000 ng/L and 5.0 to 31,000 ng/L, respectively. Atorvastatin (the most prescribed antihypercholesterolemic in India), mefenamic acid, and paraxanthine were found for the first time in wastewater in India at the mean concentrations of 395 ng/L, 1100 ng/L, and 13,000 ng/L, respectively. Select pharmaceutical metabolites (norverapamil and clopidogrel carboxylic acid) were found at concentrations of upto 7 times higher than their parent drugs in wastewater influent and effluent. This is the first study in India to report mass loading and emission of PPCPs and their select metabolites in STPs. The total mass load of all PPCPs analyzed in this study at STPU (4.97 g/d/ 1000 inhabitants) was 3.6 times higher than calculated for STPM. Select recalcitrant PPCPs (carbamazepine, diazepam, and clopidogrel) were found to have negative or no removal from STPU while additional

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Pharmaceuticals Personal care products Metabolites Fate
Subjects: Engineering > MIT Manipal > Civil Engineering
Depositing User: MIT Library
Date Deposited: 13 Dec 2016 15:07
Last Modified: 13 Dec 2016 15:07
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/147695

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