Occurrence and fate of parabens and their metabolites in five sewage treatment plants in India

Karthikraj, Rajendiran and Vasu, Anuji K. and Balakrishna, Keshava and Sinha, Ravindra K. and Kannan, Kurunthachalam (2017) Occurrence and fate of parabens and their metabolites in five sewage treatment plants in India. Science of The Total Environment, 593. pp. 592-598. ISSN 0048-9697

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Abstract

Parabens (p-hydroxy benzoic acid esters) are antimicrobial agents, used widely as preservatives in personal care products (PCPs), pharmaceuticals, foods, and beverages. PCPs that contain parabens are a major source of these chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Very fewstudies have demonstrated the occurrence of parabens in wastewater. In this study, the occurrence and fate of six parabens, methyl-(MeP), ethyl-(EtP), propyl-(PrP), butyl-(BuP), hepty-(HpP) and benzyl-(BzP) parabens, and five of their metabolites (4-HB, 3,4-DHB, OH-MeP, OH-EtP and BA) were studied in five STPs in India. The concentrations of parent parabens (Σ6parent parabens) in five STPs ranged between 131 and 920 ng/L in influent; 16 and 67 ng/L in effluent; and 104 and 1090 ng/g, dry weight, in sludge samples. The sumconcentrations of five paraben metabolites (Σ5paraben metabolites) in five STPs ranged between 4110 and 34,600 ng/L in influent; 2560 and 3800 ng/L in effluent; and 1220 and 35,900 ng/g, dryweight, in sludge samples. These valueswere higher than those reported for many industrialized countries.Wecalculated the mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emissions of parabens based on the measured concentrations in influents, effluents, and sludge. The mean removal efficiencies of parent parabens and their metabolites ranged from 80% to 100% and 28% to 76%, respectively.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: parabens, wastewater treatment plants, India
Subjects: Engineering > MIT Manipal > Civil Engineering
Depositing User: MIT Library
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2017 10:56
Last Modified: 07 Apr 2017 10:56
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/148655

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