Can mesenchymal stem cells prevent Parkinson’s Disease in at-risk individuals? Protecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra from oxidative insult.

Datta, Indrani and Bhonde, Ramesh (2012) Can mesenchymal stem cells prevent Parkinson’s Disease in at-risk individuals? Protecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra from oxidative insult. Cell Biology International, 36 (7). pp. 617-624. ISSN 1065-6995

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Abstract

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain region, but not in the ventral tegmental area and other catecholaminergic cell group areas. The etiology of PD is attributed both to environmental and genetic causes, and certain population of individuals may be classified as at-risk of developing PD later in life. However, there are as yet no therapy regimens that can help to delay or prevent the onset of the disease to realize long-term benefits from this early diagnosis. In PD, a vicious cycle gets initiated in the substantia nigra, due to which susceptible neurons continue to degenerate while damaged neurons do not get enough support for regeneration. This happens primarily due to the local environment of oxidative damage brought about by the dual presence of dopamine and high levels of iron, decline in cellular detoxification systems and low density of glial cells surrounding the dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalic region. To enhance the defense mechanism of the substantia nigra in this situation, it is necessary to combat the oxidative insult while providing trophic factors for the survival and regeneration of the damaged neurons. In light of in vitro and in vivo studies, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as candidates for cell-based therapies in PD have greater scope than as mere eplacement of cell type, since they can be used as a cellular system for the detoxification of ROS as well as a supplier of neurotrophic factors to modulate the local environment. Building on progress in unraveling the multipronged effect of MSCs, we therefore hypothesize that MSCs could be used as a prophylactic strategy to delay or prevent the onset of PD in at-risk individuals, and to slow down the progression of the disease.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article is belongs to Elsevier Science.
Uncontrolled Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells;cellular system for detoxification; at-risk to Parkinson’s disease;prophylactic basis; neurotrophic factors;oxidative insult.
Subjects: Regenerative Medicine > MIRM Bangalore
Depositing User: MCON Library
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2012 05:26
Last Modified: 10 Apr 2016 14:40
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/76578

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