Pyrethroid Insecticide Toxicity: Current concepts and review of literature

Kanchan, Tanuj and *, Pradhum Ram (2012) Pyrethroid Insecticide Toxicity: Current concepts and review of literature. Journal of Indian Society of Toxicology.

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Abstract

Pyrethroids are synthetic organic compounds synthesized from chrysanthemum flowers that are used extensively as household and commercial insecticides. The keto-alocoholic esters of chrysathemic and pyrethroic acid being lipophilic are responsible for its insecticidal properties. Pyrethroids are broadly classified into first and second generation pyrethroids. The first generation (Type 1) pyrethroids are less toxic to mammals than the second generation (Type II) pyrethroids. The pyrethroids act by a variety of mechanisms which are primarily directed towards the sodium and chloride channels. The main route of pyrethroid absorption is through the skin as a result of occupational exposure. Inhalational exposure and ingestion remain the other routes of poisoning. Local skin exposure produces paraesthesiae due to hyperactivity of cutaneous sensory nerves that is usually self-resolving. Following Inhalational exposure, nasal and respiratory irritation can occur. Asthma like symptoms has been observed. Massive doses have resulted in symptoms of pulmonary edema. Mild eye irritation and miosis can occur on ocular exposure. In the event of a poisoning, timely interventions are required. No specific antidote is available for pyrethroid poisoning and the management of pyrethroid poisoning remains supportive and symptomatic. The incidence of poisoning and death from pyrethroid poisoning is reportedly low due to the fact that extremely large doses are required for lethal effects, and a large number of cases go unreported, either due to mis-diagnosis or due to lack of an efficient system for recording and reporting of such events.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Insecticides; Pyrethroids; Acute and chronic exposure, Management
Subjects: Medicine > KMC Mangalore > Forensic Medicine
Depositing User: KMCMLR User
Date Deposited: 01 Jan 2013 06:58
Last Modified: 01 Jan 2013 06:58
URI: http://eprints.manipal.edu/id/eprint/77783

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